Friday, October 12, 2012


Aloe – [M.E.Aloe vera, one of the species contain manapol which contain vitamin, amino acid, macro and micronutrients and polysaccharides. It has an immunostimulant property. It contain a rich source of saponins which is toxic on herbivores, detergent, and destroy pathogen membranes. It has insect repellant, anti fungal, anti viral and anti bacterial property. The new compounds were found in the sterol fraction of the leaf. The presence of these agents in Aloe are very important. Campesterol, cholesterol, and B-sitosterol are plant sterols which possess chemical structures which are anti-inflammatory. Lupeol, a hydrochloride, is also an antiseptic and analgesic agent.
      In 1982, a University of Chicago Burn Center Report which will be examined in more detail later in this text recommended the presence of Salicylic Acid but adds that this aspirin-like compound is a breakdown product from aloin (barbaloin) found in the sap. Other researchers have identified the presence of small amountof Urea Nitrogen, another anti-microbial agent, in the sap.
      From the evidence obtain from research, one can postulate that Aloe vera works without toxic or allergic effects because of its nutrient and water content acts as a buffers.  The nutrients also are essential to tissue growth and function. The plant controls (or eliminates) infection because of natural antiseptic agents – Sulfur, Phenols, Lupeol, Salicylic Acid, Cinnamonic Acid, and Urea Nitrogen. It controls inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory fatty acids, Cholesterol, Campesterol and B-sitosterol, and it limits or stop pain because of its content of Lupeol, Salicylic Acid and Magnesium. Acting together, these agents and the leaves, other agents constitute the synergestic relationship. Thus, we see a rational explanation for the numerous reports that Aloe Vera eliminates many internal and external infections, limit or eliminates inflammation, and is highly effective pain killer.
      Chemistry explains Aloe’s ability to work as an effective treatment for burns, cuts, scrapes, and abrasions as well as for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions such as rheumatic fever, arthritis of all kinds, disorder of the skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and other internal organs such as the kidney, spleen, pancreas, and liver.
      It is important to remember that an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial agents are found in the sap and the rind of the plant, not in gel. At the same time one must not forget that the basic nutrient and other agents are widely dispersed throughout the plant – meaning the sap, the gel, and the rind. – and about 98% of the water is confined to the gel. This knowledge should help put pseudo-scientific fallacies to rest, especially the wide held myth that the gel of the plant is totally responsible for the healing ability of Aloe Vera. At the same time, we need not avoid an overreaction, which dismisses the gel as worthless. The gel is important as a buffering agent. Therefore, the theory of a synergistic relationship is the one, which is supportable with both history and science.
      At this point in our research for the truth, we have a chemical explanation of Aloe vera’s ability to heal through its capability to control or kill a number of disease causing microbes, to alleviate (or eliminate) pain, and to counteract inflammation.
      We know that it has been repeatedly stated that the plant has all these abilities, and more. As yet we have not even mention Aloe vera’s reported ability to eliminate excessive water from tissue, to aid digestion, to balance body acidity, to eliminate or greatly reduce scarring. To regenerate hair follicles, to return injured or damaged skin to its normal health color, or any other benefits that will be explored as we move from the theoretical back to the practical.

Neem Tree (Azadiracta indica)
Neem originated in the regions of Asia, India, Burma and Thailand. Now the tree grows in the tropical and arid regions in other parts of the globe. It is a fast growing tree adapts to semi-arid areas with 250 – 2000 mm rainfall per year. It can grow in poor soils but will not tolerate in high moisture soils and constant humidity.
Neem tree flowers are small and white. Fruit is oblong small in size about 2 cm long grows in bundles. Light green and turns yellow when ripe.  Many parts of the tree, from roots to fruits contain natural organic insecticide properties, which can be extracted and used by farmers and gardeners.
Preparing neem spray. Pound the leaves, bark or seeds at 1:2 ratio. Soak in  water overnight and use extract as spray for lepidopterous pests, bacterial wilt, nematodes, fruit flies, beetles, aphids and leaf hoppers. Cake can be used as mulch or mixed with soil to control bacteria, fungi and nematodes.
Uses of Neem:
a. As an insecticide, neem extracts from roots, bark, leaves and seeds have strong anti-feeding insecticide properties. Insects affected and sensitive to neem extracts are the following:

1. Coleoptera beetles about 20 species.
2. Diptera flies – 5 species.
3. Hemiptera bugs – 14 species.
4. Isoptera termites – 2 species.
5. Lepidoptera butterflies and moth – 25 species.
6. Orthoptera locust and grasshoppers – 5 species.

Insects that show resistance to neem extracts are scale insects, mealy bugs, bark eating caterpillars, and some pests infesting stored grains and seeds.
Neem extracts from leaves, fruits and bark have a strong repellant, anti-feedant and insecticide property. The Neem seed oil extract is a repellant to termites and nematodes. Extracts affect the food intake of insects, its digestion and physiological control mechanism (hormones) of insect growth that results in abnormalities in its molting process. Insect fertility is also affected, reducing greatly its fertile eggs.
b. The wood can be bused for lumber – construction. It is resistant to termites and woodworms. Wood chips can be used as paperboard, and excellent mulching material.

c. Use for greening urban communities, along roadsides and parks, provide shed, clean the air pollution, acting as wind breaker, serves as water shed and prevents soil erosion, green barrier against spread of forest fires.

d. Use as fodder for goats and sheep. It contains 15% protein and low in cellulose content.

e. It is also very good soil conditioner and organic fertilizer. Neem cake or fruit pulp mixed with urea or other commercial chemical fertilizers will help restrict the growth of denitrifying bacteria. This reduces the breakdown of nitrogen in fertilizers and optimizes the efficiency of fertilizers applied to the soil. Blending urea with Neem cake saves 20% of nitrogen fertilizer and increases yield by up to 15% in India. Neem cake significantly increases growth of azola and reduces insect (Pyralis sp.) infestation also in India.

f. The extracted juice is used as medicine. Effective treatment for septic wounds, ulcer, skin diseases, stomach worms and malaria. Pharmaceutical preparations as nimbidin, based ointment, soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, denaturant and edible fats.

g. The crude oil from seeds is used as lubricant. Neem seed oil mixed with soap and water is very effective spray against a wide range of insect pests. It is safe for bathing pets like dogs, cats and birds to dispel lice.

TOBACCO (BAR Chronicle July 2003)
      Tobacco has been used by man for various reasons. Today it is used more for smoking because of its addicting pleasure. Tit is also used as food and feed, insect pest and disease medication for animals, pets and poultry.
      “This is an herb of marvelous virtue against wounds, ulcers, herpes and all other things” says Jean Nicot in the 15th century, French ambassador to Portugal who introduced the tobacco plant to France. Today, our scientist continue research on tobacco. They confirmed that it has medicinal properties as antibacterial, antifungal, and topical analgesics. National Tobacco Administration (NTA) are formulating tobacco seed oil and leaf extract for medication.
      It has been reported in the DA-BAR Chronicle, that tobacco dust, if sprayed in liquid form, can be used in vegetable crops to kill insect pests such as golden snails, corm weevils, rain moths, and red flour beetle. Staunch advocates of organic farming are delighted with the beneficial uses of tobacco to control plant pests and diseases.
Other herbal plants
      The Philippine is very rich in different herbal plants that are suitable for pest and disease control. Some of them are discussed in this handbook.
Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. As far as possible, organic farmers rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and tilth (soil texture) to supply plant nutrients, and to control weeds, insects and other pests and diseases (pathogens).
According to the International Organic Farming Organization IFOAM, "The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."
Many of the above discussions on Natural Farming practices including most items on Integrated Pest Management are part of Organic Farming practices. In these following discussions, we will be introducing farming practices that will be focused on the use of organic materials instead of synthetic chemical products.

Continued to PART 6



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