Salad (daun selada)hydroponic musim ke2 2012

Penanaman salad (daun selada) menggunakan sistem fertigasi dapat meningkatkan hasil tanaman selain itu juga...

Tray-semai 10hari

Penyemaian yang baik adalah dengan selalu meperhatikan media dan pH media pada kadar yang sesuai

Red pepper minggu ke-2

Penyemaian yang baik adalah dengan selalu meperhatikan media dan pH media pada kadar yang sesuai

System Fertigasi pada lahan terbuka

System fertigasi juga sangat baik diaplikasikan pada tanaman sayuran dan jenis berdaun seperti : Sawi, Salad, Kailan dan kangkung dan lain jenis

Cili Bara 3 minggu HST

Pohon akan tumbuh di polibeg antara 5-6 bulan. Setelah pohon dipindahkan ke polibeg, penggunaan baja fertigasi AB harus dimulai tetapi dengan penilaian 1.5 ec pengukuran baja menggunakan EC Meter.

Autopot System 2011

Container media tanam pada musim 2011 yang dipercayakan untuk kami kelola adalah menggunakan sistem autopot-fertigasi, sistem ini lebih hemat dan hasil yang lebih baik.

Monday, October 15, 2012

How to make VCO


      Processing virgin coconut oil right in your own home and kitchen is
      very easy and simple.
      Grit the meat of freshly opened mature coconut.
      Pour a little water and mush the greeted coconut meat.
      Press to extract the coconut milk.
      Let the milk stay overnight or for 10 to 12 hours.
      The water will settle down the container and the oil will float.
      Drain out the water.
      Heat the oil in stainless steel kettle in 45 to 70 degrees temperature for 15 to 30 minutes to remove and evaporate remaining water in the oil. Better heat oil in double kettle where the first has water in direct contact with fire and the other with oil inside the casserole with heated water.
      Place the virgin coconut oil in bottle and seal.
      Store in room temperature away from sunlight.
Another way of preserving virgin oil is by freezing instead of heating.
Virgin coconut oil is used for various purposes. It is used for medication, beauty and body skin ointment, cooking oil, lubricant, fuel, etc. It does not get rancid when the right procedure is done.



1. IMO – Indigenous Microbial Organism

       (For composting inoculant)
a. Mix 1 kilo cooked rice with 1 kilo muscovado sugar.
b. Place in earthen jar or plastic pail.
c. Cover with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
d. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
e. Separate the juice in clean container and seal, ready for use.
f. Dosage and usage: Mix 4 tbsp I 1 liter of water or 1 litter IMO to 100 liters water and spray on plants and soil root zone. Spray on hog feeds and animal manure to eliminate malodor. Use IMO as inoculants in composting degradable organic matter.

2. OC – Organic Compost formulation and making

      (For composting inoculant)
a. Materials to be used:
1. 100 kilos or 2 bags of rice or corn brand.
2. 100 kilos or 2 bags of top soil.
3. 0.5 kilo IMO (Indigenous Microbial Organism).
4. 0.5 kilo FFAA (Fermented Fish Amino Acid).
b. Mix thoroughly the above materials and cover with plastic sheet.
c. Ferment the materials for 7 to 14 days.
d. IMO and FFAA can also be used as inoculants in making compost with the use of sawdust or hammer-milled corncobs with chicken dung or other animal manure.

3. FFAA – Fermented Fish Amino Acid formulation

         (For foliar fertilizer and growth activator)
a. Mix 1 kilo unwashed fresh trash fish with 1 kilo muscovado sugar or molasses.
b. Place in earthen jar or plastic pail.
c. Cover with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
d. Allow the materials to ferment for 7 to 14 days
e. Squeeze out the juice and place in a clean container and seal.
f. Collect the solid fishbone to be used for making calcium nutrient spray formula for plants.
g. Juice is used as foliar fertilizer to induce vegetative growth.
h. Dosage: 1 liter FFAA to 1 drum (200 liters) of water or 1 ml FFAA to 1 liter of water.

4. CPN   – Calcium for Plant Nutrient formulation

         (For Foliar Fertilizer)
a. Crush 1 kilo egg shell and burn.
b. Mix with 10 liters of pure coconut vinegar.
c. Place in a jar and cover with clean Manila paper. Fasten with rubber strip.
d. Let it stay in the jar for 3 weeks, and ad 2 kilos fishbone. (Fishbone from making FFAA can be used.)
e. After 4 weeks, the liquid can be used as Calcium Nutrient spray on plants.
f. Dosage: 1 ml to 1 liter of water or 1 litter to 1 drum (200 liters) water

5. FFJ    – Fermented Fruit Juice formulation

        (For foliar Fertilizer and drench fertilizer for seedlings)
a. Mix 1 kilo chopped banana or other fruits (except citrus), and mix with 1 kilo muscovado or molasses.
b. Place in an earthen jar or plastic pail.
c. Cover with clean Manila paper and tie with rubber strip.
d. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days and separate the juice in clean container & seal.
e. Usage: Animal drink nutrient enhancement.
f. Dosage: Mix 1 liter FFJ to 1 drum (200 liters) of water or 1 ml FFJ to 1 liter water

6. FPJ    – Fermented Fruit Juice formulation

              (For Foliar Fertilizer or drench fertilizer for seedlings)
a. Mix 1 kilo chopped banana pseudo stem) 2 feet long on the upper most section to be taken at 5 a.m.
b. Mix with 1 kilo muscovado or molasses and place in a jar or plastic pail.
c. Cover the mouth of the jar with clean Manila paper and fasten with rubber strip.
d. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days and squeeze out the juice.
e. Usage: Hog and livestock drink.
f. Dosage: 1 liter of FPJ to 1 drum (200 litters) of water or 1ml FPJ to 1 liter water.

7. LABS – Lactic Acid Bacterial Serum formulation

         (For Foliar Fertilizer or seedling drench)
a. Mix 1 kilo uncooked brown rice and or fresh milk with 1.5 liters water inside a jar.
b. Cover the jar with clean Manila paper and tie with rubber strip.
c. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
d. Usage: The juice can be used as soil conditioner or fertilizer.
e. Dosage: Mix 2 ml juice with 1 liter of water. (1 tbs. per gallon water).

8. OHN  – Oriental Herbal Nutrient formulation using GARLIC

        (For Foliar insect repellant and fungicide)
a. Mix 1 kilo clean ginger, crushed by stone of wood (no metal implement should be used), with 1 kilo muscovado sugar or molasses and place in a jar.
b. Pour in a bottle of gin, Ginebra San Miguel 40% proof.
c. Cover the mouth of the jar with a clean Manila paper and tie it with a rubber strip.
d. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
e. Usage: OHN is used as spray against insects and fungi.
f. Dosage: 3 ml OHN (garlic) mix with 1 liter of water. (1.5 tbs per gallon)

9. OHN  – Oriental Herbal Nutrient formulation using GINGER   

       (For foliar insect repellant and fungicide) 
a. Mix 1 kilo clean ginger, crushed by stone of wood (no metal implement should be used), with 1 kilo muscovado sugar or molasses and place in a jar.
b. Pour in a bottle of gin, Ginebra San Miguel 40% proof.
c. Cover the mouth of the jar with a clean Manila paper and tie it with a rubber strip.
d. Allow to ferment for 7 to 14 days.
e. Usage: OHN is used as spray against insects and fungi.
f. Dosage: 3 ml OHN (ginger) mix with 1 liter of water.(1.5 tbs. per gallon)

10. ST – Seed Treatment for germination

     Dosage and treatment of liquid formulations
0.2 % FPJ
0.2 % BRV (Brown Rice Vinegar) or Coconut vinegar.
0.2 % OHN (0.1 % OHN Garlic + 0.1 % OHN Ginger)
Mix the above formulations together with water.
How to use: Soak the seeds to be germinated for 4 to 8 hours. For slow germinating seeds, soak the seeds for a longer time. 

11. SW – Sea Water usage as spray for plants against diseases

Get sea water from the blue colored area or deep portion where water is clear and uncontaminated with land pollution. Mix 1 liter of seawater with 30 ml fresh water in a plastic container and let it stay for a duration of 2 days. The mixture can then be used as spray on disease infected plants. 
IMO –  For early vegetative growth.
FFJ –  For early vegetative stage.
FPJ –  For early vegetative stage.
FFAA – For late growth stage and bearing period.
SW – For late growth stage and bearing period.

Friday, October 12, 2012


Gather plants with strong repelling odor and taste, like pungent (hot) pepper, black pepper, tobacco, onion, ginger, garlic, marigold, oregano, bitter vine, derris, neem, aloe vera, marigold, kamantigui, guava leaves, curry leaves, ipil-ipil leaves and seeds, madre de cacao leaves, castor bean seed, tuba-tuba leaves and seeds, adelfa and other plants that repel or kill insects and have fungicidal property.
a. Chop and place them in a blender with equal amount of water and blend or Pound and extract the juice or sap (fluid/liquid). For brew, boil the material, cool and separate the liquid tea.

b. Strain the liquid and mix one (1) teaspoon powdered detergent per litter and place in bottle as stock solution.

c. Upon spraying mix one (1) tablespoon of stock solution for every litter of water. (1 tbsp. per 10 ml. water) Dosage may be increased or decreased as you find its effectiveness to your crop.

Continued to PART 7


Aloe – [M.E.Aloe vera, one of the species contain manapol which contain vitamin, amino acid, macro and micronutrients and polysaccharides. It has an immunostimulant property. It contain a rich source of saponins which is toxic on herbivores, detergent, and destroy pathogen membranes. It has insect repellant, anti fungal, anti viral and anti bacterial property. The new compounds were found in the sterol fraction of the leaf. The presence of these agents in Aloe are very important. Campesterol, cholesterol, and B-sitosterol are plant sterols which possess chemical structures which are anti-inflammatory. Lupeol, a hydrochloride, is also an antiseptic and analgesic agent.
      In 1982, a University of Chicago Burn Center Report which will be examined in more detail later in this text recommended the presence of Salicylic Acid but adds that this aspirin-like compound is a breakdown product from aloin (barbaloin) found in the sap. Other researchers have identified the presence of small amountof Urea Nitrogen, another anti-microbial agent, in the sap.
      From the evidence obtain from research, one can postulate that Aloe vera works without toxic or allergic effects because of its nutrient and water content acts as a buffers.  The nutrients also are essential to tissue growth and function. The plant controls (or eliminates) infection because of natural antiseptic agents – Sulfur, Phenols, Lupeol, Salicylic Acid, Cinnamonic Acid, and Urea Nitrogen. It controls inflammation due to its anti-inflammatory fatty acids, Cholesterol, Campesterol and B-sitosterol, and it limits or stop pain because of its content of Lupeol, Salicylic Acid and Magnesium. Acting together, these agents and the leaves, other agents constitute the synergestic relationship. Thus, we see a rational explanation for the numerous reports that Aloe Vera eliminates many internal and external infections, limit or eliminates inflammation, and is highly effective pain killer.
      Chemistry explains Aloe’s ability to work as an effective treatment for burns, cuts, scrapes, and abrasions as well as for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions such as rheumatic fever, arthritis of all kinds, disorder of the skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and other internal organs such as the kidney, spleen, pancreas, and liver.
      It is important to remember that an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial agents are found in the sap and the rind of the plant, not in gel. At the same time one must not forget that the basic nutrient and other agents are widely dispersed throughout the plant – meaning the sap, the gel, and the rind. – and about 98% of the water is confined to the gel. This knowledge should help put pseudo-scientific fallacies to rest, especially the wide held myth that the gel of the plant is totally responsible for the healing ability of Aloe Vera. At the same time, we need not avoid an overreaction, which dismisses the gel as worthless. The gel is important as a buffering agent. Therefore, the theory of a synergistic relationship is the one, which is supportable with both history and science.
      At this point in our research for the truth, we have a chemical explanation of Aloe vera’s ability to heal through its capability to control or kill a number of disease causing microbes, to alleviate (or eliminate) pain, and to counteract inflammation.
      We know that it has been repeatedly stated that the plant has all these abilities, and more. As yet we have not even mention Aloe vera’s reported ability to eliminate excessive water from tissue, to aid digestion, to balance body acidity, to eliminate or greatly reduce scarring. To regenerate hair follicles, to return injured or damaged skin to its normal health color, or any other benefits that will be explored as we move from the theoretical back to the practical.

Neem Tree (Azadiracta indica)
Neem originated in the regions of Asia, India, Burma and Thailand. Now the tree grows in the tropical and arid regions in other parts of the globe. It is a fast growing tree adapts to semi-arid areas with 250 – 2000 mm rainfall per year. It can grow in poor soils but will not tolerate in high moisture soils and constant humidity.
Neem tree flowers are small and white. Fruit is oblong small in size about 2 cm long grows in bundles. Light green and turns yellow when ripe.  Many parts of the tree, from roots to fruits contain natural organic insecticide properties, which can be extracted and used by farmers and gardeners.
Preparing neem spray. Pound the leaves, bark or seeds at 1:2 ratio. Soak in  water overnight and use extract as spray for lepidopterous pests, bacterial wilt, nematodes, fruit flies, beetles, aphids and leaf hoppers. Cake can be used as mulch or mixed with soil to control bacteria, fungi and nematodes.
Uses of Neem:
a. As an insecticide, neem extracts from roots, bark, leaves and seeds have strong anti-feeding insecticide properties. Insects affected and sensitive to neem extracts are the following:

1. Coleoptera beetles about 20 species.
2. Diptera flies – 5 species.
3. Hemiptera bugs – 14 species.
4. Isoptera termites – 2 species.
5. Lepidoptera butterflies and moth – 25 species.
6. Orthoptera locust and grasshoppers – 5 species.

Insects that show resistance to neem extracts are scale insects, mealy bugs, bark eating caterpillars, and some pests infesting stored grains and seeds.
Neem extracts from leaves, fruits and bark have a strong repellant, anti-feedant and insecticide property. The Neem seed oil extract is a repellant to termites and nematodes. Extracts affect the food intake of insects, its digestion and physiological control mechanism (hormones) of insect growth that results in abnormalities in its molting process. Insect fertility is also affected, reducing greatly its fertile eggs.
b. The wood can be bused for lumber – construction. It is resistant to termites and woodworms. Wood chips can be used as paperboard, and excellent mulching material.

c. Use for greening urban communities, along roadsides and parks, provide shed, clean the air pollution, acting as wind breaker, serves as water shed and prevents soil erosion, green barrier against spread of forest fires.

d. Use as fodder for goats and sheep. It contains 15% protein and low in cellulose content.

e. It is also very good soil conditioner and organic fertilizer. Neem cake or fruit pulp mixed with urea or other commercial chemical fertilizers will help restrict the growth of denitrifying bacteria. This reduces the breakdown of nitrogen in fertilizers and optimizes the efficiency of fertilizers applied to the soil. Blending urea with Neem cake saves 20% of nitrogen fertilizer and increases yield by up to 15% in India. Neem cake significantly increases growth of azola and reduces insect (Pyralis sp.) infestation also in India.

f. The extracted juice is used as medicine. Effective treatment for septic wounds, ulcer, skin diseases, stomach worms and malaria. Pharmaceutical preparations as nimbidin, based ointment, soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, denaturant and edible fats.

g. The crude oil from seeds is used as lubricant. Neem seed oil mixed with soap and water is very effective spray against a wide range of insect pests. It is safe for bathing pets like dogs, cats and birds to dispel lice.

TOBACCO (BAR Chronicle July 2003)
      Tobacco has been used by man for various reasons. Today it is used more for smoking because of its addicting pleasure. Tit is also used as food and feed, insect pest and disease medication for animals, pets and poultry.
      “This is an herb of marvelous virtue against wounds, ulcers, herpes and all other things” says Jean Nicot in the 15th century, French ambassador to Portugal who introduced the tobacco plant to France. Today, our scientist continue research on tobacco. They confirmed that it has medicinal properties as antibacterial, antifungal, and topical analgesics. National Tobacco Administration (NTA) are formulating tobacco seed oil and leaf extract for medication.
      It has been reported in the DA-BAR Chronicle, that tobacco dust, if sprayed in liquid form, can be used in vegetable crops to kill insect pests such as golden snails, corm weevils, rain moths, and red flour beetle. Staunch advocates of organic farming are delighted with the beneficial uses of tobacco to control plant pests and diseases.
Other herbal plants
      The Philippine is very rich in different herbal plants that are suitable for pest and disease control. Some of them are discussed in this handbook.
Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. As far as possible, organic farmers rely on crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and tilth (soil texture) to supply plant nutrients, and to control weeds, insects and other pests and diseases (pathogens).
According to the International Organic Farming Organization IFOAM, "The role of organic agriculture, whether in farming, processing, distribution, or consumption, is to sustain and enhance the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest in the soil to human beings."
Many of the above discussions on Natural Farming practices including most items on Integrated Pest Management are part of Organic Farming practices. In these following discussions, we will be introducing farming practices that will be focused on the use of organic materials instead of synthetic chemical products.

Continued to PART 6


Thursday, October 11, 2012


We have a long list of biological pest and disease control and prevention materials at the later part of this paper for your guide, in case you decide to make your own botanical organic pesticides and fungicides.
Research found Marigold to repel or eliminate nematodes within a meter radius from the plant. The roots give off chemical diffusate that is toxic to nematodes. Many other plants and herbs have been found to have insecticide and fungicidal properties. You may follow theses simple steps in preparing organic pest and disease extracts for your garden use:
While so many farmers are complaining of the high and even increasing cost of commercial agricultural chemicals, they can make and prepare their own with cheaper and available materials they can secure in their community or even grow in their own farm. Among these are the following:
1. Lime sulfur powder as natural fungicide

a. Secure 1-kilo very fine lime and 1-kilo sulfur powder.
b. Mix at 1:1 ratio.
c. Add 1-gallon water.
d. Bottle and seal tightly.
e. Spray to plants for the control of fungal diseases of both garden and farm crops.

2. Water is a universal solvent and cleaning agent. Home gardens with good water supply, while watering their plants can wash them with pressure hose to remove insect pests, fungus and bacterial infections. This practice is even done to big trees with power sprayers. Spraying clean water can wash off mites, ants, spider mites, and even fungal infections and other insect pests. With this practice many home gardens never use toxic chemicals to spray their plants against pests and diseases.

3. Sea Water is one source of good fungicide and insect repellant as well as providing the plant with added trace mineral elements. However it may need dilution with fresh water to reduce its toxicity to plants specially those with thin leaves and sensitive tissues.

4. Soap or Detergent and water

o Dissolve two (2) ounces soap flake to thee (3) gallons of water.
o Bottle the stock solution, ready for spraying. Soap washings may be used.
o Dissolve three- (3) tbs. of soap flake/powder in one (1) gallon of water. Soap washing may also be used.
o Spray the plants with the stock solution against insect pest attacking your garden plants. The soap solution is effective control against mites, aphids, ants and other garden insect pest. It can also control fungal infection.

5. Soap and Kerosene

a. Buy soap and kerosene from your local store.
b. Mix ¼ cup soap water + ¼ tbs. of kerosene + one liter water. Stir the mixture to form stock solution.
o Place stock solution in bottle ready for use. Use this solution when infestation is serious. Adding Malathion insecticide will help increase killing potency.
o Spray plants for the control of garden pests such as aphids, ants, mealy bugs, mites and spider mites, etc.

6. Soap and Aromatic Herbs

a. Collect / gather / wash and clean 1 Onion, 1 Garlic, 1 tbs. Hot Pepper.
b. Chop / cut materials into small pieces. Use grinder.
c. Pound / grind the different materials to extract juice.
d. Filter the different materials separately.
e. To the filtered juice of different materials, add 1-quart water. Let it stand for one hour and add 1-tbs. liquid soap detergent. Place the mixture in tightly covered jars and store in a cool dark place for a week as stock solution.
f. Bottles stock solution ready for botanical pesticide. Spraying garden plants with botanical pesticide. This spray makes use of the repellant quality of onion, garlic and pepper. The soap serves as sticker and spreader.

7. Vinegar

a. Buy vinegar from your local dealer. Bottle the vinegar as stock solution.
b. Spray plants with vinegar (stock solution) for the control of powdery mildew and other fungal diseases. Vinegar and other acids is good material for fungus eradication.

8. Vinegar + Fermented Sugar

a. Buy vinegar and sugar (brown or moscovado) from your local dealer
b. Mix the fermented sugar and vinegar at 1:1 ratio and place in bottle as tock solution.
c. Spray to plants stock solution for control of pest and fungal diseases.
d. Adding water and soap can help spread the stock solution but could dilute the material to be less effective.

9. Vegetable oil

a. Buy vegetable oil from your local dealer. This serves as stock solution.
b. Add water and soap (1 part oil + 5 parts water + ½ part soap) and spray to plant to control spider mites and scale insects.

10. Wood Ash

a. We can control root maggots in radish, cabbage, onion and other brassicas by spreading fresh wood ash around the plant roots. Ashes are then covered lightly with soil.
b. Wood ash can also control snails, slugs and cutworms by encircling plants with 3-4 inches wide trench, 1-2 inches deep and fill the trench with ash.
c. Spraying cucumber beetle with a mixture of equal parts of wood ash, powdered line and soap is an effective control.
d. Spray wood ash with water and soap can control flea beetle of tomatoes.

11. Vinegar and vinegar with fermented oil

a. Buy vinegar from your local dealer. Bottle the vinegar as stock solution.
b. Spray plants with vinegar (stock solution) for the control of powdery mildew and other fungal diseases. Vinegar and other acids are good material for fungus eradication.

12. Vinegar + Fermented Sugar

a. Vinegar and sugar (brown or moscovado) from your local dealer
b. Mix the fermented sugar and vinegar at 1:1 ratio and place in bottle as tock solution.
c. Adding water and soap can help spread the stock solution but could dilute the material to be less effective.
d. Spray to plants stock solution for control of pest and fungal diseases.

12. Crude oil

a. Buy crude oil from your local gas station dealer.
b. Mix soap and water to form your stock solution. (100 grams powder soap + 1 liter crud oil + 1 liter water).
c. Mix to stock solution to 16 liters of water and spray to plants against scale insects, mite, aphids and other insect pest and fungus.

continued to PART 5



1. Whit Flies are aphid-like small insects that look like tiny moth. The nymphs are found in the underside of the leaves or covered parts of the plant as they try to avoid direct sunlight. Repeat treatment several times

      Control measures:
o Spray with soap and nicotine solution.
o Use tobacco dust.
o In every serious case, use kerosene emulsion with soap and water.
o Spraying or drenching plants with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the soil at the base of plants will reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.

2. Borers hatch inside the stem of plants, eat and grow inside as caterpillars. The branch or stem infested wilts and die.

Control by cutting off the infested stem and burn killing the pest. Periodic spraying plants with organic insecticide will help repel pests. Introduction ofTRICHOGRAMMA & BRACONIDS are very effective and self sustaining borer control. When established in the community, borers no longer can multiply and increase into pest population.
Spraying of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate at weekly interval during flushing, flowering and fruit development stage will greatly reduce infestation until totally eliminated.]

3. Coffee Berry Borers (CBB) The 1.5 mm bark beetle spends its entire larval life inside the coffee berry, encases the coffee bean. Male mates inside the berry with females, but never emerge. Only the mated female emerge to fly to a new berry and bore into it to lay eggs and start the cycle anew. Only when the female fly out is it vulnerable to predators or chemical control.

Control is difficult with traditional and biological means.
A Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, attacks a wide range of insects, including CBB. The technique is to get the fungus in contact with the insect pest. The fungus can become ENDOPHYTIC – meaning, once introduced to the plant, it integrates with plant tissues. Four methods are employed. 1. Injecting it into the stem, 2. Spraying it on the leaves and other parts of the plant, 3. Soaking the seeds in it and 4. Drenching soil with it. The purpose is to make the fungus thrive in the plant so that the coffee berry borer can become exposed to it and be infected and die.
Spraying the coffee trees with HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) once in 15 days will help reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.
4. Caterpillars feed on leaves and tender parts of the plant. Butterfly and moth underneath the leaves usually lay eggs.
      Control measures:
o Spray kerosene emulsion and wet the egg clusters to destroy them.
o Handpick the caterpillar and destroy them.
o Pick leaves with cluster of eggs and burn them.
o Introduce natural enemies in the environment like Braconids and other beneficial insects and predators.
o Spray and drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) when pest are observed.

5. Cutworms attack newly transplanted vegetable seedlings or chew leaves and tender parts.
      Control measures:
o Check at night with flashlight and gather pest and mechanically destroy them.
o Cultivate and expose the soil of seedlings attacked by cutworm, locate them and destroy.
o Placing a stick or toothpick/matchstick at the side of the seedling stem buried will prevent cutworms from encircling cutting the stem.
o Spray or drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the soil at the base of the plant.

6. Leaf miners are grub inside the leaf. It develops into pupa and drops into the ground. It causes minor damage to leaves
      Control measures:
o Herbs with strong smell repel adult’s flies and other insect pest. Intercropping or planting strong smelling herbs in your garden will lessen infestation.
o Chickens and birds feed on pupa in the ground. Making your garden and farm a haven for birds will help reduce insect infestation.
o If possible, plant trees bearing fruits and berries edible to birds in your farm. Maintain a watershed or mini forest for haven of wild life.
o Dusting wood ash  and HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) on leaves will repel leaf miner fly.

7. Mealy bugs are scale insects covering stems and branches of plants, sucking its sap. This pest if not controlled early can destroy entire orchard.

      Control measures:
o Spray alcohol on the mealy bugs. It penetrates the waxy shell like protective cover, killing the insect.
o Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of orchard fruit trees like mango.
o Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
o Weekly spray of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) for insect pests.

8. Fruit Flies are common and serious pest on fruits like mango, guava, jack fruit and other fruits and vegetables. The fly lays eggs into the fruit and hatch into maggot that burrow inside fruits. They eat up portion of the fruit and open it to secondary rot infection.

      Control measures:
o Gather all infested fruits and bury or burn them to destroy the pest.
o Use bait like methyl eugenol or hydrolicate with insecticide.
o Dip ripe fruits like aromatic guava, jack fruit in Malathion of other insecticides, and place them on branches of trees every 20 meters apart.
o Mix two teaspoon of household ammonia and ¼ teaspoon soap powder in a quart of water. Fill a jar with mixture and put the jar right nest to the sunny side of the plant. Change the bait once a week or if it is diluted by rainwater.
o Plant strong smelling herbal plants within your garden and farm.

9. Squash bugs lay eggs on squash. They develop into gray nymphs with fat bodies and black legs. They suck the sap of squash and other plants with tender shoots and flowers like mango.

      Control measures:
o Sprinkle the plant with hydrated lime or wood ash.
o Find the eggs and crush them.
o Trap them with a thin flat board place slightly tilted in the garden. The bugs assemble beneath the board where they can be gathered and destroyed.
o Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of orchard fruit trees like mango.
o Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
o Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval.

10. Root maggot of flies laid its eggs near roots of plants like corn, vegetables. The hatched maggots feed on the roots, and weaken the plant. When in heavy population, they wilt and kill the plants.

      Control measures:
o Sprinkle wood ash around the stem of newly transplanted seedlings.
o Incorporate chopped marigold into the soil.
o Use organic fertilizers.
o Sprinkle HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) for insect pests.

11. Aphids / Green / Black fly makes your plant looks spindly and pale. They attack the leaves and stem. Aphids can change color to match plant color. It Metamorphose from nymphs to adult, with or without wings. When they are over crowded, they develop wings and fly to neighboring plants of the same family. They have 12 days cycle to maturity.

      Control measures:
o Makabuhay (Tinospora rumphi) – Roots, stem and leaves liquid extract mix with water and soap is a good spray against flies, aphids, moth, worm and other insects.
o Atis (Anona squamos) seeds are grind into powder and mixed with water and soap. Use as spray on aphids.
o Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval until pest are controlled.

Continued to PART 4



While the above practices are good and desirable, they have to be done in combination with modern agricultural technology to increase productivity per unit area at shorter possible time. This is because the farming and food production areas do not increase, while population continues to increase. Feeding the growing world population needs the ingenuity of man, his talent and ability to invent and innovate as his Creator endowed in him

1. Zero cultivation, following and allowing the soil to rest and rejuvenate.

Zero cultivation has been a long and original practice of man in its first attempt to grow crops. Even today, kaingineros, those who clear the forest or trees to grow seasonal crops do not cultivate the soil, since it is soft, friable and very fertile.
They just make small holes with pointed stick and drop seeds of rice, corn, vegetable or any crop they wish to grow. After one or two seasons, the soil hardens and hard to work on because of exposure to sunlight, necessitating soil cultivation, as the humus and organic content of the soil lessens. Then the farmer starts depending on commercial chemical fertilizers to replace nutrient loss. Unless organic compost materials are augmented to the soil, it will continue deteriorating.
To remedy the situation, following, or resting the field for one year, allowing all vegetation including weeds to grow, to bring back the natural fertility and bioorganic life into the soil. The use of organic fertilizer in combination to commercial chemical fertilizer will help preserve and sustain the productivity of the land. This has been the practice of ancient farming in Egypt, Babylon and Israel.
Tilling on the other hand promotes healthy soil in cultivated agricultural lands. It exposes the pest and soil born diseases, increases soil aeration and oxygen supply to microorganisms and promotes root growth and penetrates better as the soil is loose. This is done after destroying the natural soil environment through tillage.
In orchard farms (fruit tree plantations) where permanent trees are growing, zero tillage can be done, by growing low creeping leguminous cover crops like Arakis pintoy or Australian peanut weed (mani-mani) around and in between tree rows.

2. Practice clean culture.

Keeping the field clean will help in preventing the growth and multiplication of pest and diseases. All plant waste and droppings should be gathered in one place to be composted and converted into organic fertilizer. Before using the composted organic materials for fertilizer, sanitize them first by exposing them to direct sunlight and dried to eliminate any diseases and eggs of insect pests. Defoliate over mature and diseased and infested leaves. Allow sunlight and aeration to penetrate between plants and within the foliage of trees. It will promote the growth of normal and healthy branches and eliminate abnormalities.
Cultivation and weed control will also help not only in soil aeration and softening of soil mass but will also reduce or disturb the breeding place of insect pests and fungal diseases.
To bring back the natural organic matter, these materials have to be incorporated with the soil as organic fertilizer and manure.

3. Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control program using combination of all practices to reduce or eliminate pest damage. This includes natural, biological and mechanical practices as well as bio and chemical pesticide application.
Among these practices include the following:
a. Planting resistant or tolerant plant varieties. Growing indigenous crop varieties with reasonably high productivity should be encouraged. New breeds and genetically modified plants are being developed like Bt Corn which are resistant to corn borer infestation. New pest and disease resistant with high nutrient food value varieties are being bred and produced through genetic engineering (GM) and natural cross breeding.
b. Timing planting so as the growing and fruiting stages does not coincide with inclement weather conditions and high incidence of pest population.
c. Growing boarder or inter-crops that are repellant to insect pests.
d. Practice clean culture, proper pruning and removal of diseases or infested plant parts especially with fruit trees. Remove all breeding places of insect pests and infected debris rotting near plants and field.
e. Use organic fertilizer in combination with chemical fertilizer and supplement the field with compost and pro-biotic (bacteria, yeast & fungus). Sanitize compost and organic materials by exposing them to direct sunlight before applying it as fertilizer.
f. Learn to prepare and use bioorganic pesticides and fungicides as substitute for toxic chemicals.

IPM may also include the following:
a. Keep the garden small and the plants varied to prevent insect pests infestation. Solo or mono cropping tends to encourage the multiplication and outbreak of insect pest that feed on the particular plant grown. Multiple cropping or maintaining a green belt in the farm where vegetation is allowed to grow naturally will be a shelter and home to beneficial organisms, plants and animals including variety of insects that will check and control any outbreak of pests. This will be a natural check and balance.

b. A basic principle in pest management: Plant the right crop on the right soil at the right time. Plant crops at a time when its particular pest is inactive.

c. Plant indigenous cultivars or plant varieties native to the place. They are resistant to the pests and adapt very well to the local environment. The introduction of hi-breeds and high yielding commercial seeds have the tendency of eliminating indigenous varieties that are adopted to the environment as they have survive decades and century of adjustments.

d. Healthy organic soil, grow healthy plants that resist pests and diseases. In soils applied with organic matter or humus, animal manure and compost, the soil host a wide variety of micro organisms that are harmful to nematodes and cause diseases to some insect pests thereby allowing the increase in population of beneficial organisms and insects.

e. Crop rotation dissociates microorganism buildup around the plant roots as each crop has a characteristic microbial association. (Example is pro biotic and nitrogen fixing bacteria for legumes). New microbes are being developed to inoculate the seeds just before planting to introduce them into the soil and help in nitrogen fixation that enriches the soil.

f. Aromatic herbs like mint, garlic, marigold, oregano, onion, control nematodes and repel insects, and should thus be grown as companion crop to your garden or farm.

g. Tilling promotes healthy soil as it allows aeration bringing supply of oxygen promoting root growth and permit better root penetration breaking soil compaction. It exposes pest and soil born diseases to sunlight and disturbs their growth and multiplication. Sunlight is a very good and free sanitizer.

h. Crop combination such as legumes and potatoes, control nematodes. Learn and find out the best crop partners and combinations. Planting tomatoes in between rows of eggplant will reduce fruit fly infestation on eggplant fruits. Growing marigold at the border of vegetable plots will also help repel some insect pests.

4. Insect traps, lure and attractants.

There are many practical and inexpensive ways of controling and managing the population of insects pests in your garden and fields. Here are some of them that you may adopt:
a. Light Traps - This practice have been found effective in unlighted areas. Light is provided with a basin of water. As the nocturnal insects are attracted to the light, they fly and dip into the water, or their wings are singed by the flame of the fire light.

b. Lure with attractants – The lures derived from molasses and flower scent (odor), tantalize both male and female moths (the caterpillar adult stage) with the promise of nectar. The insects fly into the opening of a lure-dispensing trap, never to return.

c. Chemical sex attractant – The use of PHEROMONE a chemical with female insect odor that confuses the male and attracts them to a bait treated with toxic insecticide or they fail to mate with the female insects.

d. Blue electric lamp surrounded with electrically charged mess wire that electrocutes insects upon contact.

e. Yellow pads – Most insect pests are attracted to bright yellow color. Yellow pad with grease or paste, attract insects during the day and sticks to the pad as they come in contact. The pad may also be treated with molasses and pesticide to give added attractant and killing potential.

5. Use of Biological Pest and Disease Control.

The use of living plant and animals or living organisms to  control pest and diseases are called Biological Control. They may be microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, virus or bigger life forms like insects, worms, reptiles, mammal and birds. You can learn to increase the beneficial insects, microorganisms and other animal and plant life in your farms to counter pests and diseases harming your crops. Let us protect and increase these beneficial enemies of pests.
6. Use of Organic Fertilizer

Fertilizers coming from fermented and decomposed organic materials are very nutritious safe fertilizer materials. They both enrich the soil plant food nutrients, improves the texture for easier root growth and preserve the soil life such as beneficial bacteria and fungi. We have several recommended formula in preparing organic fertilizer both liquid and solid form in this handbook.
7. Used of Organic Pest and Disease Control

Herbal preparations to control pest and diseases can easily be made by farmers themselves since we have abundant plants in the Philippines that are suitable ingredient.
We offer you several formulations and methods of preparing Botanical or Herbal pest and diseases concoctions in this handbook to guide you make your own.
8. Use of indigenous resistant plant varieties and strain.

There are several plant varieties and species that are found resistant or tolerant to certain prevalent pest and diseases. It will be wise for farmers to know them and grow these type of plants specially during months or season that certain pest and diseases are abundant.
9. Practice crop rotation and following (resting the soil for some time).

Crop rotation or changing crops grown in certain areas to avoid the buildup of certain pest or disease affecting certain crops. Example, rotating onions with pepper or cassava. Resting the soil for one to two years to allow natural vegetation and the growth of natural enemies to introduce balance of nature, while enriching your soil environment for future crop production.
10. Growing and inter-cropping of pest repellant and herbal plants.

There are crops that repel certain insect pests. Intercropping tomato with cabbages and cauliflower will help reduce the diamondback moth attacking cabbages. Learn what these crop combinations. You will not only reduce your cost of pest and disease control but may even increase your income per unit area with the crop combination.
11. Integrated cropping pattern to prevent growth of toxic weeds.

Certain weeds are difficult to remove or control, like grasses. Planting vines and crawling crops like sweet potato and cover crops will help suppress weeds. Replacing the weeds with other beneficial creeping plants like Arakis pintoy (mani-mani) that covers the spaces between fruit trees and help supply nitrogen to the soil.
12. Growing the right crop on the right soil, climate and at the right time.

There are suitable crops that are ideal for certain season of the year and suitable soils for their healthy and productive growth. Learn the nature of the plants and their preferences before deciding what to grow in your farm. The Philippines is a located in the tropical zone, so ideal for tropical crops and not much for temperate crops. Let us learn the advantages we have by growing the right crops best suited to our land with good market demand.

Continued to PART 3


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