Thursday, October 11, 2012


1. Whit Flies are aphid-like small insects that look like tiny moth. The nymphs are found in the underside of the leaves or covered parts of the plant as they try to avoid direct sunlight. Repeat treatment several times

      Control measures:
o Spray with soap and nicotine solution.
o Use tobacco dust.
o In every serious case, use kerosene emulsion with soap and water.
o Spraying or drenching plants with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the soil at the base of plants will reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.

2. Borers hatch inside the stem of plants, eat and grow inside as caterpillars. The branch or stem infested wilts and die.

Control by cutting off the infested stem and burn killing the pest. Periodic spraying plants with organic insecticide will help repel pests. Introduction ofTRICHOGRAMMA & BRACONIDS are very effective and self sustaining borer control. When established in the community, borers no longer can multiply and increase into pest population.
Spraying of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate at weekly interval during flushing, flowering and fruit development stage will greatly reduce infestation until totally eliminated.]

3. Coffee Berry Borers (CBB) The 1.5 mm bark beetle spends its entire larval life inside the coffee berry, encases the coffee bean. Male mates inside the berry with females, but never emerge. Only the mated female emerge to fly to a new berry and bore into it to lay eggs and start the cycle anew. Only when the female fly out is it vulnerable to predators or chemical control.

Control is difficult with traditional and biological means.
A Fungus, Beauveria bassiana, attacks a wide range of insects, including CBB. The technique is to get the fungus in contact with the insect pest. The fungus can become ENDOPHYTIC – meaning, once introduced to the plant, it integrates with plant tissues. Four methods are employed. 1. Injecting it into the stem, 2. Spraying it on the leaves and other parts of the plant, 3. Soaking the seeds in it and 4. Drenching soil with it. The purpose is to make the fungus thrive in the plant so that the coffee berry borer can become exposed to it and be infected and die.
Spraying the coffee trees with HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) once in 15 days will help reduce and eventually eliminate infestation.
4. Caterpillars feed on leaves and tender parts of the plant. Butterfly and moth underneath the leaves usually lay eggs.
      Control measures:
o Spray kerosene emulsion and wet the egg clusters to destroy them.
o Handpick the caterpillar and destroy them.
o Pick leaves with cluster of eggs and burn them.
o Introduce natural enemies in the environment like Braconids and other beneficial insects and predators.
o Spray and drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) when pest are observed.

5. Cutworms attack newly transplanted vegetable seedlings or chew leaves and tender parts.
      Control measures:
o Check at night with flashlight and gather pest and mechanically destroy them.
o Cultivate and expose the soil of seedlings attacked by cutworm, locate them and destroy.
o Placing a stick or toothpick/matchstick at the side of the seedling stem buried will prevent cutworms from encircling cutting the stem.
o Spray or drench the plant with HOC-4n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) including the soil at the base of the plant.

6. Leaf miners are grub inside the leaf. It develops into pupa and drops into the ground. It causes minor damage to leaves
      Control measures:
o Herbs with strong smell repel adult’s flies and other insect pest. Intercropping or planting strong smelling herbs in your garden will lessen infestation.
o Chickens and birds feed on pupa in the ground. Making your garden and farm a haven for birds will help reduce insect infestation.
o If possible, plant trees bearing fruits and berries edible to birds in your farm. Maintain a watershed or mini forest for haven of wild life.
o Dusting wood ash  and HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) on leaves will repel leaf miner fly.

7. Mealy bugs are scale insects covering stems and branches of plants, sucking its sap. This pest if not controlled early can destroy entire orchard.

      Control measures:
o Spray alcohol on the mealy bugs. It penetrates the waxy shell like protective cover, killing the insect.
o Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of orchard fruit trees like mango.
o Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
o Weekly spray of HOC-3n1 (Herbal Organic Concentrate) for insect pests.

8. Fruit Flies are common and serious pest on fruits like mango, guava, jack fruit and other fruits and vegetables. The fly lays eggs into the fruit and hatch into maggot that burrow inside fruits. They eat up portion of the fruit and open it to secondary rot infection.

      Control measures:
o Gather all infested fruits and bury or burn them to destroy the pest.
o Use bait like methyl eugenol or hydrolicate with insecticide.
o Dip ripe fruits like aromatic guava, jack fruit in Malathion of other insecticides, and place them on branches of trees every 20 meters apart.
o Mix two teaspoon of household ammonia and ¼ teaspoon soap powder in a quart of water. Fill a jar with mixture and put the jar right nest to the sunny side of the plant. Change the bait once a week or if it is diluted by rainwater.
o Plant strong smelling herbal plants within your garden and farm.

9. Squash bugs lay eggs on squash. They develop into gray nymphs with fat bodies and black legs. They suck the sap of squash and other plants with tender shoots and flowers like mango.

      Control measures:
o Sprinkle the plant with hydrated lime or wood ash.
o Find the eggs and crush them.
o Trap them with a thin flat board place slightly tilted in the garden. The bugs assemble beneath the board where they can be gathered and destroyed.
o Spraying kerosene with tobacco and soap plus Malathion is effective for field control of orchard fruit trees like mango.
o Repeat spraying every week until the pest is totally under control.
o Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval.

10. Root maggot of flies laid its eggs near roots of plants like corn, vegetables. The hatched maggots feed on the roots, and weaken the plant. When in heavy population, they wilt and kill the plants.

      Control measures:
o Sprinkle wood ash around the stem of newly transplanted seedlings.
o Incorporate chopped marigold into the soil.
o Use organic fertilizers.
o Sprinkle HOP-3n1 (Herbal Organic Powder) for insect pests.

11. Aphids / Green / Black fly makes your plant looks spindly and pale. They attack the leaves and stem. Aphids can change color to match plant color. It Metamorphose from nymphs to adult, with or without wings. When they are over crowded, they develop wings and fly to neighboring plants of the same family. They have 12 days cycle to maturity.

      Control measures:
o Makabuhay (Tinospora rumphi) – Roots, stem and leaves liquid extract mix with water and soap is a good spray against flies, aphids, moth, worm and other insects.
o Atis (Anona squamos) seeds are grind into powder and mixed with water and soap. Use as spray on aphids.
o Spray HOC-3n1 on weekly interval until pest are controlled.

Continued to PART 4



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